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Letter of Experts Opposed to Cuts in Social Security Benefits

Dr. Yanira Cruz

Strengthen Social Security

Apr 12, 2011

April 12, 2011

President Barack Obama The White House Washington D.C. 20500

Dear Mr. President:

As experts on Social Security, the federal budget or the economy, we write to correct a commonly held misconception – that Social Security somehow contributes to the federal government’s deficit. In fact, Social Security’s Old Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and its Disability Insurance Trust Fund are prohibited from paying benefits unless those funds have sufficient income and assets to cover the cost, and they have no borrowing authority to acquire the requisite income and assets. Consequently, Social Security is prohibited by law from deficit-spending and thus contributing to the federal deficit.

We also write to point out that Social Security’s benefits are modest both compared to those of other industrialized countries and in absolute terms. Its administrative costs are also modest, amounting to less than a penny of every dollar expended. The modest size yet increasing importance of Social Security’s life insurance, disability insurance, and old age annuities, given the trends in private sector retirement arrangements, savings, home equity and stock values, leads us, as a policy matter, to recommend strongly that Social Security’s manageable shortfall, still decades away, should be eliminated without cutting benefits, including without raising the retirement age.

Sincerely,

1. Henry J. Aaron, Ph.D., Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, Brookings Institution 2. W. Andrew Achenbaum, Professor of Social Work and History, University of Houston 3. Randy Albelda, Ph.D., Professor, University of Massachusetts, Boston 4. Carolyn Aldana, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, California State University, San Bernardino 5. Sylvia A. Allegretto, Ph.D., Economist, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, University of California, Berkeley 6. Nancy J. Altman, J.D., Co-director, Social Security Works, top aide to Alan Greenspan in his position as Chairman of the 1982-83 Social Security Commission 7. Edwin Amenta, Ph.D., Professor of History and Sociology, University of California, Irvine 8. Nancy Amidei, M.S.W., Director, Civic Engagement Project, Emeritus Faculty, University of Washington School of Social Work 9. Alice H. Amsden, Ph.D., Barton L. Weller Professor of Political Economy, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 10. Greg Anrig, Vice President of Policy and Programs, the Century Foundation 11. Richard Arenberg, M.A., Adjunct Lecturer in Public Policy and American Institutions, Brown University; Adjunct Lecturer in Political Science, Northeastern University 12. William Arnone, J.D., Independent Consultant; Partner Emeritus, Ernst & Young, LLP; Founding Member, National Academy of Social Insurance 13. Michael Ash, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 14. M. V. Lee Badgett, Ph.D., Director, Center for Public Policy & Administration; Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 15. Dean Baker, Ph.D., Co-director, Center for Economic & Policy Research 16. Erdogan Bakir, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Economics, Bucknell University 17. Radhika Balakrishnan, Ph.D., Professor of Women's and Gender Studies, Rutgers University 18. Stephen Baldwin, Ph.D., Economist, Retired 19. Robert Jonathan Ball, L.C.S.W, Ed.D., Social Security Works Advisory Committee 20. Nina Banks, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Bucknell University 21. Edward Berkowitz, Ph.D., Professor of History and Public Policy and Public Administration, George Washington University 22. Alexandra Bernasek, Ph.D., Professor, Colorado State University 23. Merton Bernstein, J.D., Professor Emeritus, Washington University, St. Louis 24. Tom Bethell, Independent Social Insurance Policy Analyst, Editor and Co-author with Robert M. Ball of Straight Talk About Social Security and other publications 25. Deepak Bhargava, Executive Director, Center for Community Change 26. Cyrus Bina, Ph.D., Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota (Morris Campus) 27. Josh Bivens, Ph.D., Economist, Economic Policy Institute 28. Robert Binstock, Ph.D., Professor of Aging, Health, and Society, Case Western Reserve University 29. Barry Bluestone, Ph.D., Dean, School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs, Northeastern University 30. Mark Blyth, Ph.D., Professor of International Political Economy, Brown University 31. Eileen Boris, Ph.D., Hull Professor and Chair, Department of Feminist Studies, Director, Center for the Study of Women and Social Justice, University of California, Santa Barbara 32. Roger Bove, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Retired, West Chester University 33. Gerard Bradley, M.A., Research Director, New Mexico Voices for Children 34. Ruth A. Brandwein, Ph.D., Dean and Professor Emeritus of Social Welfare and former Director, Social Justice Center, Stony Brook University 35. Bobbie Brinegar, M.S.W., Executive Director, OWL-The Voice of Midlife and Older Women 36. Byron Brown, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Michigan State University 37. Clair Brown, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley 38. E. Richard Brown, Ph.D., Professor, University of California Los Angeles, School of Public Health 39. John Burbank, M.P.A., Executive Director, Economic Opportunity Institute 40. Barbara Burt, M.Ed., Executive Director, Frances Perkins Center 41. Donna Butts, Executive Director, Generations United 42. Al Campbell, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Utah 43. Martha Campbell, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Economics, State University of New York, Potsdam 44. Jim Campen, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Boston 45. Nancy K. Cauthen, Ph.D., Sociologist and Independent Consultant 46. Gamze Cavdar, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Colorado State University 47. Charles Chittle, Ph.D., Professor, Bowling Green State University 48. David Coates, Ph.D., Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies, Wake Forest University 49. Alan B. Cohen, Sc.D., Professor of Health Policy and Management, Boston University School of Management, Executive Director, Boston University Health Policy Institute 50. Laura Coker, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Wake Forest University School of Medicine 51. William E. Connolly, Ph.D., Krieger-Eisenhower Professor, Political Science, Johns Hopkins University 52. Fay Lomax Cook, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Policy Research and Professor of Human Development & Social Policy, Northwestern University 53. David Crary, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Eastern Michigan University 54. J. Kevin Crocker, M.A., Undergraduate Program Director and Lecturer, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 55. James Crotty, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 56. Yanira Cruz, D.P.H., M.P.H., President & CEO, National Hispanic Council on Aging 57. Jeff Cruz, Executive Director, Latinos for a Secure Retirement 58. Bill Cunningham, Associate Director of Legislation, American Federation of Teachers 59. Anita Dancs, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Western New England College 60. Paul Davidson, Ph.D., Editor, Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics; Chair of Excellence, Professor Emeritus, University of Tennessee 61. Charles Davis, Ph.D., Professor of Labor Studies, Indiana University 62. Susan Davis, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Economics & Finance, Buffalo State College 63. Jayne Dean, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Wagner College 64. Patricia Elizabeth Dilley, J.D., L.L.M., Professor of Law, Levin College of Law, University of Florida 65. G. William Domhoff, Ph.D., Research Professor in Sociology, University of California, Santa Cruz 66. Peter Dorman, Ph.D., Faculty in Political Economy, Evergreen State College 67. Kirstin Downey, author of The Woman Behind the New Deal (Random House, 2009); and former economics reporter for the Washington Post 68. Richard Du Boff, Ph.D., Professor of Economics Emeritus, Bryn Mawr College 69. Lloyd Dumas, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of Texas at Dallas 70. Peter Eaton, Ph.D., Director, University of Missouri-Kansas City Center for Economic Information 71. Ross Eisenbrey, J.D., Vice President, Economic Policy Institute 72. David Ekerdt, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, University of Kansas 73. Justin Elardo, Ph.D., Economics Instructor, Portland Community College 74. Gerald Epstein, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 75. Sharon Erenburg, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Eastern Michigan University 76. Carroll Estes, Ph.D., Professor and Founding Director, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco; Chair, National Committee to Preserve Social Security & Medicare 77. Rashi Fein, Ph.D., Professor of the Economics of Medicine, Emeritus, Harvard University 78. Susan Feiner, Ph.D., Professor of Economics and Women's Studies, University of Southern Maine 79. Karen Ferguson, J.D., Executive Director, Pension Rights Center 80. Thomas Ferguson, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science, University of Massachusetts, Boston; Senior Fellow, Roosevelt Institute 81. Sean Flaherty, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Franklin and Marshall College 82. David Gallo, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, California State University, Chico 83. John Gallup, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Portland State University 84. Lorenzo Garbo, Ph.D., Professor, University of Redlands 85. Alejandro Garcia, Ph.D., M.S.W., Professor, Syracuse University School of Social Work 86. Eric Geist, Research Economist, Communications Workers of America 87. Chris Georges, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Hamilton College 88. Teresa Ghilarducci, Ph.D., Bernard L. and Irene Schwartz Chair of Economic Policy Analysis, The New School for Social Research 89. David Gold, Ph.D., Associate Professor, The New School 90. Deborah Goldsmith, M.A., Instructor, Economics, City College of San Francisco 91. Nance Goldstein, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Southern Maine 92. Linda Gordon, Ph.D., University Professor of the Humanities and Florence Kelley Professor of History, New York University 93. Steve Gorin, Ph.D., Professor, Social Work Department, Plymouth State University 94. Colleen Grogan, Ph.D., Professor, University of Chicago, School of Social Service Administration 95. Michael Gusmano, Ph.D., Fellow, Hastings Institute 96. Jacob Hacker, Ph.D., Stanley Resor Professor of Political Science, Yale University 97. Lori L. Hansen, M.S.W., Former Member, Social Security Advisory Board; Technical Assistant to Robert M. Ball for the 1982-83 Social Security Commission 98. Martin Hart-Landsberg, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Lewis and Clark College 99. Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., Research Professor, George Washington University, and President, Institute for Women's Policy Research 100. Jeffrey A. Hayes, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate, Institute for Women's Policy Research 101. Emily Hayworth, Office Coordinator, Women’s Studies Program, University of Delaware 102. John Henry, Ph.D., Research Professor, University of Missouri-Kansas City 103. Pamela Herd, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Public Affairs and Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 104. Edward Herman, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Finance, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania 105. Adam Hersh, Ph.D., Economist, Center for American Progress 106. Stephen Herzenberg, Ph.D., Director, Keystone Research Center 107. Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Study Director, Institute for Women's Policy Research 108. Carol E. Heim, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 109. Michael Hillard, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of Southern Maine 110. Alice M. Hoffman, Ph.D., Board Member, Pennsylvania Alliance for Retired Americans 111. Emily P. Hoffman, Ph.D., Professor of Economics Emerita, Western Michigan University 112. Brooke Hollister, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of California, San Francisco; Vice Chair of National Board of Directors, National Gray Panthers 113. Barbara Hopkins, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics, Wright State University 114. Alan Houseman, J.D., Executive Director, Center for Law and Social Policy 115. Dorene Isenberg, Ph.D, Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, University of Redlands 116. Timothy S. Jost, J.D., Professor of Law, Washington & Lee University School of Law 117. Jon Jucovy, Ph.D., Chairman, History Department, Ramaz School 118. Karen Kahn, M.S.W., Mental Health Clinician, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey 119. Rosalie Kane, D.S.W., Professor, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, School of Public Health, & Faculty Associate, Center for Bioethics, University of Minnesota 120. Stephanie A. Kelton, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, and Research Scholar, Levy Economics Institute 121. Barbara B. Kennelly, President & CEO, National Committee to Preserve Social Security & Medicare; Former Member, U.S. House of Representatives; Acting Chair, Social Security Advisory Board 122. Mary King, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Portland State University 123. Melvin King, M.A., Retired, Massachusetts Institute of Techonology 124. Eric R. Kingson, Ph.D., Professor of Social Work, Syracuse University; Co-director, Social Security Works; and advisor to the 1982 National Commission on Social Security Reform 125. Jennifer Klein, Ph.D., Professor of History, Yale University 126. Andrew Kohen, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, James Madison University 127. Ebru Kongar, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics, Dickinson College 128. Kazim Konyar, Ph.D., Professor, California State University, San Bernardino 129. Tamara Kraut, Vice President of Policy and Programs, Demos 130. Joan A. Kuriansky, J.D., M.A., Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Wider Opportunities for Women 131. David Laibman, Ph.D., Professor, Economics (retired), Brooklyn College, City University of New York 132. Thomas Lambert, Ph.D., Lecturer, Indiana University Southeast 133. Louise Lamphere, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor of Anthropology, Emeritus, University of New Mexico 134. Gary Latanich, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Arkansas State University 135. Scott Lazerus, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Western State College of Colorado 136. William Lazonick, Ph.D., Professor, University of Massachusetts 137. Paul Leigh, Ph.D., Professor, University of California, Davis 138. Keith Leitich, M.A., Part-Time Instructor, Pierce College Puyallup 139. Fernando Leiva, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Economist, State University of New York at Albany 140. Hank Leland, Senior Research Analyst, Employee Benefits, SEIU 141. Mark Levinson, Ph.D., Chief Economist, SEIU 142. Carlos Liard-Muriente, Ph.D., Associate Professor & Chair, Department of Economics, Central Connecticut State University 143. Daniel Luria, Ph.D., Vice President of Research, Industrial Technology Institute 144. Robert Lynch, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Washington College 145. Catherine Lynde, Ph.D., Professor, University of Massachusetts, Boston 146. Arthur MacEwan, Ph.D., Economics, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Boston 147. Nancy MacLean, Ph.D., Arts and Sciences Professor of History, Duke University 148. Allan MacNeill, Ph.D., Professor, Webster University 149. Diane Macunovich, Ph.D., University of Redlands; Former member, Advisory Panel to the Social Security Trustees 150. Mark Maier, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Glendale College 151. Ted Marmor, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Public Policy and Management, and Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Yale University 152. Ray Marshall, Ph.D., Audre & Bernard Rapoport Chair in Economics and Public Affairs, University of Texas-Austin 153. Myra Marx Ferree, Ph.D., Martindale Bascom Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 154. Jerry Mashaw, Ph.D., LL.B., Sterling Professor of Law, Yale Law School 155. Julie Matthaei, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Wellesley College; United States Solidarity Economy Network 156. Peter Matthews, Ph.D., Jermain Professor of Political Economy, Middlebury College 157. Elaine McCrate, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Economics and Women's Studies, University of Vermont 158. Heather C. McGhee, J.D., Washington Office Director, Demos 159. Kate McGovern, Ph.D., Adjunct Faculty, Springfield College, School of Human Services 160. Gerald A. McIntyre, L.L.B., Directing Attorney, National Senior Citizens Law Center 161. Charles W. McMillion, Ph.D., President/Chief Economist, MBG Information Services 162. Michael Meeropol, Ph.D., Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Economics, Western New England College; Visiting Professor of Economics, John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York 163. Tatjana Meschede, Ph.D., Research Director, Brandeis University 164. John Messier, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Maine, Farmington 165. Peter Meyer, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Urban Policy and Economics, University of Louisville; President and Chief Economist, The E.P. Systems Group, Inc. 166. Thomas Michl, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Colgate University 167. Marcelo Milan, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Parkside 168. William Milberg, Ph.D., Professor, The New School 169. John Miller, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Wheaton College 170. Gwendolyn Mink, Ph.D., Social Policy Scholar 171. Lawrence Mishel, Ph.D., President, Economic Policy Institute 172. Vernon Mogensen, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science, Kingsborough Community College, City University of New York 173. Monique Morrissey, Ph.D., Economist, Economic Policy Institute 174. Fred Moseley, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Mount Holyoke College 175. Tracy Mott, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Department Chair, Economics, University of Denver 176. Nancy R. Mudrick, Ph.D., Professor of Social Work, Syracuse University 177. Stephen Mumme, Ph.D., Professor, Colorado State University 178. Peggy B. Musgrave, Ph.D., Emerita Professor of Economics, University of California, Santa Cruz 179. Alan Nasser, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Economics, The Evergreen State College 180. Paul Nathanson, J.D., M.C.L., Executive Director, National Senior Citizens Law Center 181. Michael Nuwer, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, State University of New York, Potsdam 182. Alice O'Connor, Ph.D., Professor, Department of History, University of California, Santa Barbara 183. Annelise Orleck, Ph.D., Professor of History, Dartmouth College 184. Nancy M. Ortiz, District Manager, Retired, Social Security Administration 185. Rudy Oswald, Ph.D., Retired, AFL-CIO 186. Christine Owens, J.D., Executive Director, National Employment Law Project 187. Aaron Pacitti, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Siena College 188. Michael Perelman, Ph. D., Professor of Economics, California State University, Chico 189. Kenneth Peres, Ph.D., Economist, Communications Workers of America 190. Mark Peterson, Ph.D., Professor of Public Policy and Political Science, Luskin School of Public Affairs, University of California, Los Angeles 191. Paul Pierson, Ph.D., John Gross Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley 192. Larry Polivka, Ph.D., Director, Claude Pepper Center, Florida State University 193. Harold Pollack, Ph.D., Faculty Chair Center for Health Administration Studies, Helen Ross Professor, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago 194. Robert Pollin, Ph.D, Professor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; and Co-Director, Political Economy Research Institute 195. Shirley Porterfield, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Missouri-St. Louis 196. Marilyn Power, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Sarah Lawrence College 197. Mark Price, Ph.D., Labor Economist, Keystone Research Center 198. Paddy Quick, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, St. Francis College, Brooklyn 199. Miles Rapoport, President, Demos 200. Edith Rasell, Ph.D., Minister for Economic Justice, United Church of Christ 201. Elton Rayack, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, University of Rhode Island 202. Steve Regenstreif, Director, AFSCME Retirees 203. Michael Reich, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley 204. Nola Reinhardt, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Smith College 205. Bruce Roberts, Ph.D., Professor, University of Southern Maine 206. Malcolm Robinson, Ph.D., Professor, Thomas More College 207. Charles Rock, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Rollins College 208. Maya Rockeymoore, Ph.D., President & CEO, Global Policy Solutions 209. William M. Rodgers II, Ph.D., Professor of Public Policy and Chief Economist, Rutgers University 210. Leah Rogne, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Minnesota State University, Mankato 211. Sergio Romero, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Sociology, Boise State University 212. Frank Roosevelt, Ph.D., Teaching Faculty, Sarah Lawrence College 213. Nancy Rose, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, California State University, San Bernardino 214. Basel Saleh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Radford University 215. Michéle Saunders, D.M.D, M.S., M.P.H., Professor & Director, South, West & Central Consortium Geriatric Education Center of Texas, University of Texas Health Science Center 216. Steven Savner, J.D., Director of Public Policy, Center for Community Change 217. Susan Scanlan, Chair, National Council of Women's Organizations 218. Arthur Scarritt, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Boise State University 219. Robert E. Scott, Ph.D., Economist, Economic Policy Institute 220. Peter Schaeffer, Ph.D., Economics Professor, West Virginia University 221. James Schulz, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Economics, Brandeis University 222. Eric Schutz, Ph.D., Professor, Rollins College 223. Stephanie Seguino, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of Vermont 224. Jean Shackelford, Ph.D., Professor, Bucknell University 225. Nina Shapiro, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Saint Peter's College 226. Heidi Shierholz, Ph.D., Economist, Economic Policy Institute 227. Richard Shirey, Ph.D. in Economics, Professor Emeritus, Siena College 228. Laurence Shute, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona 229. Max J. Skidmore, Ph.D., University of Missouri Curators' Professor of Political Science, Thomas Jefferson Fellow, University of Missouri-Kansas 230. Curtis Skinner, Ph.D., Director of Family Economic Security, National Center for Children in Poverty 231. Theda Skocpol, Ph.D., Victor S. Thomas Professor of Government and Sociology, Harvard University 232. Margaret Somers, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology and History, University of Michigan 233. Peter Spiegler, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts, Boston 234. Janet Spitz, Ph.D., Associate Professor, College of St. Rose 235. Case Sprenkle, Ph.D., Retired Professor, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 236. James Ron Stanfield, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Economics, Colorado State University 237. Howard Stein, Ph.D., Professor, University of Michigan 238. Mary Stevenson, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Boston 239. Jeffrey Stewart, Ph.D., Independent Social Insurance Policy Analyst 240. Jay Stone, Ph.D., Teacher, Ramaz School 241. Frank Stricker, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, California State University, Dominguez Hills 242. Myra Strober, Ph.D., Professor Emerita of Education, Stanford University 243. Simona Sung, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, College of Saint Rose 244. Paul Swanson, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, William Paterson University 245. Peter A. Swenson, Ph.D., C.M. Saden Professor, aND Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Political Science, Yale University 246. Jose Tapia, Ph.D., Assistant Research Scientist, University of Michigan 247. Peter Temin, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 248. David Terkla, Ph.D., Associate Dean, College of Liberal Arts, University of Massachusetts, Boston 249. Frank Thompson, Ph.D., Lecturer in Economics, Research Investigator, University of Michigan 250. Emanuel Thorne, Ph.D., Chair, Department of Economics, Brooklyn College of City University of New York 251. Mariano Torras, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Adelphi University 252. Mayo Toruno, Ph.D, Professor and Chair, California State University, San Bernardino 253. John Tower, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics and Management, Oakland University 254. Lynn Unruh, Ph.D., Professor of Health Management and Informatics, University of Central Florida 255. William Van Lear, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Belmont Abbey College 256. Katherine van Wormer, Ph.D., Professor of Social Work, University of Northern Iowa 257. Ben Veghte, Ph.D., M.P.A, Social Policy Scholar 258. Marcela Velasco, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Colorado State University 259. Paula Voos, Ph.D., Professor, Rutgers University 260. Jeff Waddoups, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Economics, University of Las Vegas 261. Robert P. Watson, Ph.D., Professor of American Studies and Coordinator of the American Studies Program, Lynn University 262. John Weeks, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of London 263. David Weiman, Ph.D., Elena Wels Hirschorn Professor of Economics, Barnard College 264. Scott A. Weir, Ph.D., Economics Instructor, Wake Technical Community College 265. Thomas Weisskopf, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Michigan 266. Cathleen Whiting, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics, Willamette University 267. Howard Wial, J.D., Ph.D., Fellow, Brookings Institution 268. Gary Williams, Ph.D, Associate Professor of Sociology (retired), Belmont Abbey College 269. Robert G. Williams, Ph.D., Voehringer Professor of Economics and Chair, Economics Department, Guilford College 270. John Williamson, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, Boston College 271. David Wilsford, Ph.D., Professor of Political Sciences and Director of Graduate Studies, George Mason University; and Visiting Senior Fellow, London School of Economics 272. Martin Wolfson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics, University of Notre Dame 273. Yavuz Yasar, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Denver, Department of Economics 274. Laurie Young, Ph.D., Director of Public Policy and Government Affairs, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force 275. David Zalewski, Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Providence College 276. Henry Zaretsky, Ph.D., President, Henry W. Zaretsky & Associates, Inc.; Adjunct Professor, University of Southern California

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